Saturday, March 20, 2021

United Kingdom breaks international treaty obligations with nuclear expansion plans

The government of the United Kingdom has announced its intention to expand its arsenal of nuclear weapons by 40%, which would bring its total to 260 warheads. Each warhead is estimated to have an explosive power of around 100 kilotons, making them significantly more dangerous than the 15 kt bomb which devastated Hiroshima in 1945, causing the death of approximately 140,000 people by the end of the year.

Responding the news, the UN Secretary General's office described the plans as contrary to the UK's obligations under Article VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

Irish CND is shocked and repulsed by this move by our nearest neighbour to increase the capacity of its weapons of mass destruction. At a time when the planet faces existential threats from climate change and global biodiversity loss, not to mention the likelihood of future pandemics in addition to the current Covid-19 crisis, pouring vast sums into the power of destruction is reckless and immoral.

In 2019, the UK spent £7.2 billion on its nuclear weapons. How many doctors, nurses, intensive care beds and ventilators could that money have financed? How many programmes to decarbonise the UK economy and lessen the impacts of climate change could it have supported?

Denouncing the plans, Irish CND chairperson, Dr David Hutchinson Edgar, said: "At a time when the United Kingdom claims to aspire to a renewed role in global leadership, its government has chosen to cling desperately to the flotsam of the failed policies of the 1950s and '60s instead of looking to the future with a meaningful vision of global security. Nuclear weapons have never made the world safer. They can play no part in tackling the genuine crises that the world faces today.

"This egotistical move threatens suffering and death on an unimaginable scale, were these weapons ever to be detonated, either by accident or intentionally. Even if they are never used, this move will still contribute to suffering and death for many, many people, both in the UK and further afield, which could have been averted by putting the huge cost of these weapons to better use. Nuclear weapons are a symbol of shame, not status, for the British government."

"In 2017, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons was agreed by a significant majority of UN member states. It entered into force in January 2021. This is clearly what the world wants and needs for nuclear weapons: to consign them to the dustbin of history. We urge the UK and other countries which have not yet done so to follow Ireland's lead in joining the TPNW and committing to a world free of nuclear weapons." 

Beatrice Fihn, Executive Director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (of which Irish CND is a partner organisation), stated: “A decision by the United Kingdom to increase its stockpile of weapons of mass destruction in the middle of a pandemic is irresponsible, dangerous and violates international law. While the British people are struggling to cope with the pandemic, an economic crisis, violence against women, and racism, the government choses to increase insecurity and threats in the world. This is toxic masculinity on display.”

“While the majority of the world’s nations are leading the way to a safer future without nuclear weapons by joining the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, the United Kingdom is pushing for a dangerous new nuclear arms race.”

The move was also strongly criticised by Mayor Kazumi Matsui of Hiroshima, who stated: "Its implementation would run counter to the nuclear disarmament obligation of NPT States Parties and reverse three decades of nuclear weapon reduction policy by the United Kingdom. Such steps can only result in further acceleration of the arms race and weakening international security and stability."

Friday, January 22, 2021

Nuclear weapons are banned under international law

Nuclear weapons were always immoral. With the entry into force of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) on Friday, 22nd January 2021, these abhorrent weapons of mass destruction are also illegal under international law. 

The Treaty explicitly prohibits states from developing, testing, producing, manufacturing, otherwise acquiring, possessing or stockpiling nuclear weapons. It also prohibits the provision of assistance in any of these activities, and bans both the use and the threat of use of nuclear weapons. 

In addition to these prohibitions, the TPNW sets out a framework for nuclear-armed states to renounce their weapons, and contains provisions for the support of victims of nuclear weapon explosions, and for environmental remediation. It also recognises the disproportionate impact of ionizing radiation on women and girls. 

Although initially only binding on the states that have ratified it to date, the TPNW is a significant step in stigmatising and delegitimising the possession of nuclear weapons by less than ten states. Through the entry into force of the TPNW, states opposed to the threat of nuclear annihilation reshape international norms to declare unequivocally that nuclear weapons are unacceptable. 

Ireland has played a key role in the TPNW process, from being one of the states which proposed the negotiation of a new treaty at the UN, through being a key participant in the negotiation process, culminating in Ireland's ratification of the treaty on 6th August 2020, the 75th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima. In welcoming the entry into force, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Simon Coveney, stated "The elimination of nuclear weapons is not just a priority of this Government, but one shared by all parties and strongly supported by the Irish people."

Campaigners, activists, diplomats and politicians across the world have all played their part in bringing about this historic moment. ICAN, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (of which Irish CND is a member), received the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize for its key role in promoting the successful negotiation of the treaty. 

Particular mention, however, needs to made of the hibakusha - the "explosion-affected people", who have carried the terrible legacy of atomic warfare in their bodies, many of whom have dedicated their lives to the cause of liberating the world from nuclear weapons. The dreadful toll taken on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as those living in the vicinity of nuclear test sites, is powerful testimony to why nuclear weapons must be abolished once and for all. 


Sunday, October 25, 2020

Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty reaches threshold for Entry into Force

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) has been ratified by 50 countries, and will now enter into force on 22nd January 2021, 90 days after its 50th ratification was lodged at the United Nations. The Treaty was negotiated in 2017 with the backing of 122 countries, following a UN motion proposed by Ireland and 5 other states calling for talks on a new legal instrument to outlaw nuclear weapons.  

For the first time under international law, the treaty explicitly bans the use, development, testing, production, acquisition, possession, stockpiling, transferring, receiving, threat of  use and deployment of nuclear weapons. It also prohibits the provision of assistance to others to do any of these banned actions and provides a pathway to disarmament for states which possess nuclear weapons. 

Ireland ratified the TPNW on 6th August 2020, the 75th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, and has already transposed its provisions into Irish law in the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons Act (2019). 

Welcoming the news that the Treaty has reached the threshold for entry into force, Irish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament chairperson, Dr David Hutchinson Edgar said: "This is a momentous step on the road to a world free of nuclear weapons. There is now an irrefutable international norm against nuclear weapons. While that will not bring about disarmament overnight, it clearly de-legitimises their development and possession. 

"Nuclear weapons are the most deadly, devastating and indiscriminate weapons ever developed. It is high time, 75 years after they were first used, that they were consigned to history forever. They are a prime example of the misapplication of scientific technology. The money and effort which has gone into their development and maintenance should now be diverted to tackling the other man-made existential crises facing the planet in the form of the climate crisis and biodiversity loss." 

Irish CND pays tribute to the tireless work of many campaigners, especially the hibakusha who survived the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, many of whom have dedicated their lives - often despite serious health impacts from the bombing - to working to ensure that no future generation would have to endure the horrors they suffered. 

The work of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN - Nobel Peace Prize 2017), of which Irish CND is a partner organisation, deserves particular praise, in facilitating the development of a focussed global network of campaigners, working together towards the clear goal of the abolition of nuclear weapons. ICAN’s Executive Director Beatrice Fihn welcomed the historic moment. “This is a new chapter for nuclear disarmament. Decades of activism have achieved what many said was impossible: nuclear weapons are banned," she said.

ICAN Executive Director Beatrice Fihn and Setsuko Thurlow, who survived the Hiroshima bomb as a child, accept the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize.

Irish CND commends the Irish government for its international leadership in the negotiation of the TPNW and the process leading to its entry into force. It is very much to be welcomed that all shades of Irish political opinion have put their support firmly behind the TPNW, and have emphasised its importance in providing the framework for disarmament which the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) lacks. 

Irish CND wholeheartedly endorses the words of Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney, who stated*: "The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons offers us a path to nuclear disarmament by finally putting in place a workable legal framework for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The Treaty is fully complementary with the NPT. The TPNW strengthens and reinforces the NPT and reaffirms it as the cornerstone of the disarmament and non-proliferation regime. It is a facilitator, not an impediment to progress. As recognised in the NPT, TPNW and throughout the discussions on the humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, the only true guarantee against the horrors of nuclear war is the total elimination of nuclear weapons."

*Speech by Minister Simon Coveney, to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, 25th February 2019. 

Thursday, August 6, 2020

Hiroshima remembered as Ireland ratifies nuclear weapons ban treaty

On the 75th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima, Ireland formally ratified the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, depositing its instrument of ratification at the United Nations in New York. 

The news of Ireland's ratification of the treaty was welcomed at the annual commemoration for all those affected by the testing and use of atomic bombs, held in Merrion Square, Dublin, at the memorial cherry tree planted by Irish CND in 1980. 


Lord Mayor of Dublin Hazel Chu speaking at the Hiroshima commemoration 


Lord Mayor of Dublin Hazel Chu laid flowers at the cherry tree, stating: "As Lord Mayor of Ireland’s capital city, I warmly welcome Irish ratification of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. It is my hope that this brings us one step closer to the day when no city will ever again face the threat of the horrific destruction by nuclear weapons inflicted on Hiroshima 75 years ago." Lord Mayor Chu praised the work of the Disarmament Section of the Department of Foreign Affairs for their efforts in bringing Irish ratification to completion. 


In his speech, Irish CND president, Canon Patrick Comerford, also welcomed the news of Irish ratification of the treaty. Japanese Ambassador Mitsuru Kitano evoked the plea of the hibakusha that the burden they have borne for 75 years should never again be inflicted on anyone, and noted Irish ratification of the TPNW as evidence of Ireland's long-term commitment to nuclear disarmament. 


Irish traditional musicians contributed several pieces, combining lament with hope.


Ireland was one of a group of six states which proposed the negotiation of a new international treaty explicitly outlawing nuclear weapons in 2016. Their motion was passed by a large majority of the UN General Assembly. Following two negotiating sessions in 2017, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons was approved, again by a large majority, with Ireland playing a key role in the successful negotiations.  


The importance of a Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons was recognised by the award of the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (of which Irish CND is a partner organisation), which joined forces with like-minded states, including Ireland, to campaign for the Treaty. 


The Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons Act, signed into law by President Higgins in December 2019, transposed the provisions of the TPNW into Irish law in advance of formal ratification. 


Ireland's ratification, together with those of Nigeria and Niue, bring the total number of ratifications to date to 43. It is widely expected that the Treaty will enter into force by the end of 2020, when it has been ratified by 50 states. 


For the first time, it will be explicitly contrary to international law to "develop, test, produce, manufacture, otherwise acquire, possess or stockpile nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices." The Treaty also contains provisions on providing assistance for victims and on environmental remediation, and explicitly recognises the disproportionate impact of nuclear weapons on women and children.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Annual commemoration of Hiroshima bombing, 6th August 2019

The annual commemoration for the victims of the Hiroshima atomic bomb took place on Tuesday, 6th August, the 74th anniversary of the bombing, at the memorial cherry tree in Merrion Square park, Dublin 2. The ceremony was attended by approximately 50 people who braved heavy showers to re-affirm their commitment to ensuring that the ghastly events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki will never be repeated.

Speaking at the ceremony, Lord Mayor of Dublin Paul McAuliffe reaffirmed Dublin's commitment to the goals of Mayors for Peace, and spoke of his hopes that cities like Dublin could do more to promote disarmament and peace.
Mr Kenichiro Sasame, Deputy Head of Mission at the Japanese Embassy in Ireland, Canon Patrick Comerford, Irish CND, and Lord Mayor of Dublin Paul McAuliffe.

Mr Kenichiro Sasame, Counsellor and Deputy Head of Mission at the Japanese Embassy in Ireland, reiterated Japan's commitment to nuclear disarmament, and outlined Japan's current work to promote disarmament. He praised the contribution of other states and civil society organisations, including the those who have worked for the creation of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. He acknowledged that Japan is currently pursuing a different route to disarmament, but expressed his hope that the various routes taken will be united in the achievement of the common goal of a world without nuclear weapons.
Mr Kenichiro Sasame, Deputy Head of Mission at the Japanese Embassy in Ireland, addresses the Hiroshima Commemoration.

In his speech, Irish CND President Canon Patrick Comerford criticised the failures of nuclear-armed states to take genuine steps to disarmament, highlighting in particular the collapse of the INF Treaty earlier in the week. He paid tribute to those who have helped to turn the tide of nuclear proliferation, and called for renewed effort in face of renewed threats: "The women who protested at Greenham Common in the 1980s, who occupied the silos and the sites where Cruise and Pershing missiles were to be deployed, were successful. Their voices, their protests, their bravery, their persistence, also brought about the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty. We need their spirit, their bravery, their their resilience, their organisation today. And we need them before it is too late. The memory of the hibakusha of Hiroshima deserves at least that."

Musicians Máire Ní Bheaglaíoch and Junshi Morakami played a selection of traditional tunes on accordian and harp, expressing both grief at the catastrophic harm caused by atomic bombing and hope for a future free of nuclear weapons. The ceremony concluded with the laying of a wreath by Lord Mayor McAuliffe at the foot of the cherry tree and a minute's silence.


The attendance at the commemoration included the ambassadors of Austria, New Zealand and Norway, as well as representatives of the Brazilian, French and United States embassies, and from the Department of Foreign Affairs.

Saturday, February 2, 2019

Trump's suspension of INF Treaty is outrageous and irresponsible

The announcement on 1st February by the United States that it is suspending its compliance with the INF Treaty, with full withdrawal to follow in August, marks a major and dangerous step on the road to a new nuclear arms race. Suspension or withdrawal paves the way for the US to develop and deploy the classes of medium and shorter-range nuclear missiles outlawed under the Treaty, and would likely be met by similar actions on the Russian side. 

The Treaty, signed by Presidents Reagan and Gorbachev in 1987, eliminated all US and Russian nuclear missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 km. It has been widely regarded as one of the most successful international nuclear arms reduction measures, removing a whole class of weapons which had largely been targetted at European cities in the event of hostilities between the former USSR and the US.

Since 2014, both the US and Russia have alleged that the other state is in breach of the treaty through the development on new nuclear-capable missile systems, although neither side has published conclusive evidence of this.

"At a time when the world already faces unprecedented crises in the form of climate change, regional conflicts and refugee movements, it beggars belief that the leadership of any civilised state would open the gates towards expanding its capacity to destroy life on earth through the development of new nuclear weapons systems", said Dr David Hutchinson Edgar, chairperson of the Irish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

"Alleged breaches of the INF Treaty should be dealt with through the appropriate international legal mechanisms, such as the Treaty's own Review Commission or the ICJ", he continued. "Ripping up a Treaty which has worked effectively for over thirty years is an outrageous and irresponsible action which can only serve to jeopardise world peace further at a time when international stability is possible less secure than at any time since the end of the second world war.

"We now know that luck played a large part in averting a nuclear catastrophe on several occasions during the cold war. In the event of a renewed nuclear arms race which would involve at least the United States, Russia and China, the world may not be so lucky.

"We believe it is imperative that all nuclear-armed states, not just the US and Russia, fulfil their obligations to disarm as specified under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The obvious way for them to do so is to engage with the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, negotiated in 2017 with the support of over 120 countries.

"In particular, we urge the Irish government to prioritise the ratification of the Treaty as a matter of urgency. We also call on the Irish government to work with our European colleagues to ensure that any future American requests to site nuclear missiles in EU member states will be refused."

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Hiroshima survirors to visit Dublin

On Wednesday, 17th October, Irish CND will have the privilege of hosting two hibakusha from Hiroshima on a one-day visit to Dublin with Peace Boata Japan-based international NGO which is represented on the steering group of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize winners. 


Ms Tsukamoto Michiko was 10 years old at the time of the bombing, and Ms Sora Tamiko was 3 years old. Both were affected by radiation exposure in the aftermath of the bombing.

A number of events have been organised in the course of the day, including meeting officials at the Department of Foreign Affairs to discuss Ireland's role in the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, and a reception hosted by the Lord Mayor. 

They will hold a joint press/political briefing at 16:30 in Buswell's Hotel, followed by a conversation on their experiences and hopes for a nuclear-weapons-free world with local peace campaigners. 

Peace Boat left the Japanese port of Yokohama on September 1st on its current Global Voyage for Peace, and will return there on December 17th, after visiting 24 ports across Asia, the Mediterranean region, western Europe and North and South America.